The name O-ring comes from the accident of the space shuttle Challenger that exploded because one of the components, the o-rings, failed. The production function has two crucial assumptions. The first is that workers must be sufficiently imperfect substitutes for each other; that is, it is not possible to substitute several low-skill workers for one high-skill worker.
Outline the assumptions of the functionalist explanation of stratification. Outline the assumptions of the conflict theory explanation of stratification.
Understand how symbolic interactionism views stratification. Why is stratification so common? Is it possible to have a society without stratification? Sociologists trying to answer these questions have developed two very different macro explanations of stratification, while symbolic interactionists have examined the differences that stratification produces for everyday interaction.
For this reason, stratification is necessary and inevitable. Conflict Stratification results from lack of opportunity and from discrimination and prejudice against the poor, women, and people of color. It is neither necessary nor inevitable. In line with this view, functionalist theorists in sociology assume that stratification exists because it also serves important functions for society.
Some principles of stratification. American Sociological Review, 10, — When applied to American society, their assumptions would be as follows: Some jobs are more important than other jobs.
For example, the job of a brain surgeon is more important than the job of shoe-shining. Some jobs require more skills and knowledge than other jobs. To stay with our example, it takes more skills and knowledge to do brain surgery than to shine shoes.
Relatively few people have the ability to acquire the skills and knowledge that are needed to do these important, highly skilled jobs. Most of us would be able to do a decent job of shining shoes, but very few of us would be able to become brain surgeons. To induce the people with the skills and knowledge to do the important, highly skilled jobs, society must promise them higher incomes or other rewards.
This example is very hypothetical, but please keep reading. If you decide to shine shoes, you can begin making this money at age 16, but if you decide to become a brain surgeon, you will not start making this same amount until about age 35, as you first must go to college and medical school and then acquire several more years of medical training.
Which job would you choose? If physicians and shoe shiners made the same high income, would enough people decide to become physicians?
If this is true, we must have stratification. This all sounds very logical, but a few years after Davis and Moore published their functionalist theory of stratification, other sociologists pointed out some serious problems in their argument Tumin, ; Wrong, Some principles of stratification: American Sociological Review, 18, —; Wrong, D.
The functional theory of stratification: American Sociological Review, 24, — First, it is difficult to compare the importance of many types of jobs.
For example, which is more important, doing brain surgery or mining coal? In another example, which job is more important, attorney or professor?This functionalist theory of stratification was first discussed by the authors in in the article, “Some Principles of Stratification” which appeared in the American Sociological Review and was later extended and refined in Davis ’s book Human Society ().
Parsons and the functionalist approach to sociology occupy an intermediate position between classical and contemporary sociology. Some new sociological approaches were developed in North America before Parsons. But Parsons and the functional approach to sociology became so dominant that by the.
大漢和辞典 1 諸橋轍次著 大修館書店 m 大漢和辞典 2 大漢和辞典 3 大漢和辞典 4 大漢和辞典 5 大漢和辞典 6 大漢和辞典 7. In general, the data supported Davis and Moore's basic propositions.
The theory was extended by considering some implied interactions and offering a tentative causal model for positional determinants.
The Davis–Moore hypothesis, sometimes referred to as the Davis–Moore theory, is a central claim within the structural functionalist paradigm of sociological theory, and was advanced by Kingsley Davis and Wilbert E.
Moore in a paper published in This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document. Unformatted text preview: SOCIAL STRATIFICATION Some Principles of Stratification CONTEMPORARY CROSS—CULTURAL KINGSLEY DAVIS AND WlLBERT E.
MOORE WITH A RESPONSE BY .